Dubai Financial Market


“Connecting Liquidity”. The slogan of Dubai’s financial market underlines the exchanges commitment to connect liquidity across all its actions, leveraging advanced technology and best practices to continually drive market growth and trading volume.


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Japan Financial Market


“Passion for Excellence’’ The famous slogan of Bridgestone Corporation in Japan.


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London Stock Exchange


London Stock Exchange has consistently led the way in developing a strong, well-regulated stock market and today lies at the heart of the global financial community.


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Wall Street, New York City


‘’Models work when they are appropriate for the particular circumstance, but some of the best investment judgments over time have come when people recognized that models derived in other periods were broken or not directly relevant.” Abby Joseph Cohen


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Paris Financial Market


"The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest amount of feathers with the least possible amount of hissing" Jean-Baptiste Colbert.


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Any small business is a potential target for embezzlement. You can fall a victim to this crime when there are no internal controls to ensure all monies are accounted for. Key to stopping embezzlement is implementing a dual control system on accounting functions.

The authorization or approval of two individuals to complete a transaction. It’s that simple. One individual should not be responsible for an entire financial transaction from the beginning to its end. Many small companies fall into the trap of having one bookkeeper handling all accounts payable and accounts receivable, as well as writing, signing, and delivering the checks. The dual control system puts a second set of eyes on transactions, greatly lessening the risk of embezzlement.

Preventing fraud and embezzlement in business requires diligence by both the manager and the owner. There are four areas in which business owners should pay special attention to, they are as the following:

  1. Accounting books/reconciliation: The first thing a good business requires is a well system of financial books. The business needs to track where money is coming from and where it is going. Books need to be updated, and the manager needs to look at the income statements, balance sheets, accounts payable, and accounts receivable on a monthly, if not weekly, basis. Knowing where every penny and inventory item is in your company is vital. Your books need to be audited by a contracting firm at least once every year. Your bank accounts need to be reconciled with the book on monthly basis, and if at all possible, that reconciliation should not be performed by the bookkeeper. Your bookkeeper should take a full, uninterrupted annual vacation of at least two weeks if possible. This permits transactions under the bookkeeper’s control to clear properly in his/her absence.

     

  2. Check signing and disbursement: The bookkeeper should not sign cheques. The business head or owner should sign every cheque that goes out of the company. Each cheque should be looked at, and if you do not know what it is for, ask questions. All cheques should require two signatures.

     

  3. Inventory: A common way of committing fraud in a company is to place orders to fictitious companies for materials that are never delivered but are paid for. Reconciling orders to inventory on a periodic basis can catch this problem. In many small businesses, employee theft of inventory is a real problem (particularly in small restaurants). Taking partial inventory on a random basis will help detecting employees’ theft.

     

  4. Cash: If your business is a cash business, you have another set of problems. As an example, a small chain of coffee shops in Seattle was having financial problems. Each of the shops was unprofitable, however, each seemed to be generating enough customer flow to make money. The owner started working in each of the coffee shops on a periodic basis and quickly determined that they did generate enough cash to be profitable. The problem was the employees were pocketing the cash from some of the coffee sales. The owner then established a dual control system where he took an inventory of cups and reconciled it to the daily dollar sales and quickly determined where the problems were. Reconciling cash to inventory is key in many cash businesses. 

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